EOC/Final Exam (Facts) Study guide


1. 6 Essential Elements of Geography: (1) The World in Spatial Terms, (2) Places & Regions,(3) Physical Systems, (4) Human Systems, (5) Environment & Society, (6) The Uses of Geography.

2. Relative Location  – Tells the location by referring to another location. Absolute Location– Tells the location by using coordinate (Longitude, Latitude).

3.B.C. (Before the birth of Christ) is located on the left side of the time line and the years counts backwards. A.D.(In the year of our Lord) located on right of timeline and the years counts forward.

4. Intervals are marked by vertical lines to determine the years in between the time span and are equal segments.

5. Old Stone Age- Nomadic people built everything from stone. Hunting (Men) & Gathering(Woman) used to obtain food.

New Stone Age -  beginning of farming and invention of fire. More people start to settle much longer in one location for longer periods of time.

6. Prehistory is the time before writing was invented.
History is when people begin writing to document events about their past.

7. Food surplus affected New Stone Age  because it allowed them to have an abundance of food from farming. The Old Stone Age did not allow them to farm as much because of weather condition and their nomadic lifestyle.

8. For a civilization to thrive you need the following: central government, cities, job specialization, social classes.

9.  The 2 most important Mesopotamian civilizations were Babylonia and Assyria.

10. The first type of writing was created by the Sumerians (Mesopotamia) called cuneiform which consisted of wedges and lines.

11. Hammurabi wrote the first written law codes.

12.  Hebrews (Israelites) used the holy text called the Torah.

13. An Israelite (Abraham) started Judaism which was monotheistic.

14. Phoenicians were known for creating a set of alphabetic symbols and (trade) dye used for snails.

15. 3 Languages on the Rosetta Stone are Demonic, hieroglyphs, Greek.

16. 3 kingdoms of Egypt are Old, Middle, and New; representation of time.

17. King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt.

18. Nubians were important because they developed trade routes and they were famous traders of donkeys, ostrich feathers, eggs, panther skins, and the boomerang for hunting.  Center of trade between Egypt & African civilization.

19. Kushites (Rome & Macedonia) took control of Egypt.

20. The Aryans were people who entered India and taught them a new language. Also they taught them how to make weapons out of iron.

21. Aryan and India cultures blended to make Hinduism.

22. The Maurya Empire increased the size of India and Gupta.

23. Asoka treated his people like his children.

24. Hinduism is a blend of religions and they worshipped gods and goddess such as Vishnu & Shiva.  Buddhist follow the Middle Way which was the Eight Fold way to end human suffering and give up selfish desires. Both Hindu and Buddhism believe in dharma, karma, reincarnation, and ahimsa.

25. Shi Huangdi was the first emperor of China.

26. The Great Wall of China was built by Shi Huangdi to stop nomads from attack along the northern border.

27. The Silk Road was a secret trade route for merchants from China to the Mediterranean Sea.

28. The Han Dynasty ruled by Liu Bang and his grandson Wudi. Created the Civil service system based on Confucianism (government).  Made improvements to the Great Wall of China and invented the scroll.

29. Confucius taught Confucianism which consisted of the 5 virtues of morals and belief.  Jobs were based on ability and respect.

30. (Ancient China) The mandate of heaven determines the fate of a person and gives the ruler a right to rule.

31. The Himalayas and Hindu Kush Mt. The Indus and Ganges River Valley also separated China and India

32. Persian War included Cyrus the Great against the Greeks. Sparta wins the Peloponnesian War against Athens and Sparta They both suffered from plague. Athens win the famous battle of Marathon. This battle united Greece.

33, The Dark Ages of Greece people did not trade food and they went back to survival mode.  They began to leave Greece. People did not value their old traditions and writing was forgotten.

34. Pericles was the famous Athenian political leader and the inventor of the Parthenon (Building in Ancient Greece) to worship the goddess Athena.

35. Democracy (Citizens get to vote into office their leaders and military tactics such as blockades.

36. The Parthenon built by Pericles for the Goddess Athena.

37. Hellenistic period after Alexander the death. Most of the cities were names after him. His kingdom was separated into 3 parts; the greatest one was Alexandria. This also lead Greek culture to spread to other lands.

38. Athenian men were well educated. Athenian women were isolated from the public and had no say so in government. Spartan men lived barbaric lifestyles so that they would become great warriors. Spartan women controlled the household and could take part in government.

39. Athenian lifestyle was more conservative and organized which contained grand libraries and buildings. Spartan’s lifestyle was very harsh and barbaric like behavior for boys and girls.

40. Aqueducts are man-made structure that carries water over a long distance.

41. The Romans got their gods from the Etruscans and Greeks.

42. 3 reasons why the Roman empire fell:

(1) Weak rulers. (2)  Bad economy. (3) Become too much for one person to rule.

3 reasons why the Roman Republic fell: (1) Civil war broke out against the patricians and plebeians, (2) Consuls no longer respected each other veto power, and (3) The assassination of Julius Caesar.

43. The Roman emperor Constantine supported Christianity and he established freedom of religion.

44. Good Roman emperors: Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Augustus. 5 emperors were picked based off their abilities not through biological father inheritance.

Bad emperors: Nero, Caligula, Commodus (Crazy and selfish). Nero executed many Christians.

45. Julius Caesar was a Roman emperor. Caesar did not want to give up his power. He was a dictator and he ruled more than 6 months. He was assassinated by the Senate.

46. The person that introduced Christianity to the Roman was Jesus.

47. Roman Republic consists of citizens who have the right to vote, 300 members of the senate, 2 consuls as chief executives, and praetors that served as judges.

48. Ancient Ethiopia was taught Christianity by King Ezana.

49. Ezana was the king of Aksum.

50. Aztecs were polytheistic and believed in gods and goddesses, such as the sun god and included human sacrifices. Polytheistic – Greece, Rome, Egypt, India, China.

51. Irrigation ditches impact the Incas growing of crops by increasing farm production and by the use of terraces.

52.  The Mayans civilization declined because they abandoned their cities possibly due to diseases, lack of food, or war.

Extra Notes:

  • 4 Parts of the map: Title, Scale Bar, Key, Compass Rose.

• Nebuchadnezzar created the Hanging Garden of Babylon.

•The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age.

•Paleolithic Period, also spelled Paleolithic Period, also called Old Stone Age, ancient cultural stage, or level, of human development.

  • •Oligarchy is a form of government in which a small group exercises control especially for selfish or corrupt purposes.
  • Samsara (originated in India) The repeating cycle of life and death (reincarnation).
  • Maharaja Sri-Gupta founder of Gupta Empire in India.
  • Chandragupta - First Gupta Emperor of India
  • Ptolemy (Greco-Roman) was a writer, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer that lived in Alexandria.
  • Constantine - Emperor of Rome who encouraged the spread of Christianity. He moved the capital of Rome to the city of Byzantium. The new city was named after him Constantinople.
  • Plebeians (Ordinary Citizens of Rome). Patricians (Members of the wealthy class of Rome). To stop riots between the Patricians and Plebeians, a contract was created called the Laws of the Twelve Tables to promote equality amongst all citizens of Rome.
  •  Pax Romana is Latin for "Roman Peace." The Pax Romana lasted from about 27 B.C. (with Augustus) until A.D. 180 -- the death of Marcus Aurelius.