2. Relative – Tells the location by referring to another location. Absolute – Tells the location by using coordinate
4. Intervals are marked by vertical lines to determine the years in between the time span and are equal segments.
5. Old Stone Age- Nomadic people built everything from stone.
New Stone Age - beginning of farming and creation of fire. More people start to settle much longer.
6. Prehistory is the time before writing was invented.
History is when people begin writing to document events about their past.
7. Food surplus affected New Stone Age because it allowed them to have an abundance of food from farming. The Old Stone Age did not allow them to farm as much because of weather condition and their nomadic lifestyle.
8. For a civilization you need food, water, and a government to keep order and provide services.
9. The 2 most important Mesopotamian civilizations were Babylonia and Assyria.
10. The first type of writing was created by the Sumerians called cuneiform which consisted of wedges and lines.
11. Hammurabi wrote the first written law codes.
12. Hebrews (Isrealites) used the holy text called the Torah.
13. Isrealites started Judaism which was monotheistic.
14. Phoenicians were known for creating a set of alphabetic symbols and dye used for snails.
15. 3 Languages on the Rosetta Stone are Demonic, hieroglyphs, Greek.
16. 3 kingdoms of Egypt are Old, Middle, and New.
17. King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt.
18. Nubians were important because they developed trade routes and they were famous traders of donkeys, ostrich feathers, eggs, panther skins, and the boomerang for hunting.
19. Kushites (Napata and Meroe) took control of Egypt.
20. The Aryans were people who entered India and taught them a new language. Also they taught them how to make weapons out of iron.
21. Aryan and India cultures blended to make Hinduism.
22. The Maurya Empire increased the size of India.
23. Asoka treated his people like his children.
24. Hinduism is a blend of religions and they worshipped gods and goddess such as Vishnu & Shiva.
follow the Middle Way which was the Eight Fold way to end human suffering and give up selfish desires.
25. Shi Huangdi was the first emperor of China.
26. The Great Wall of China was built by Shi Huangdi to stop nomads from attack along the northern border.
27. The Silk Road was a secret trade route for merchants.
28. The Han Dynasty ruled by Liu Bang and his grandson Wudi. Created the Civil service system based on Confucianism (government). Made improvements to the Great Wall of China.
29. Confucius taught Confucanism which consisted of the 5 virtues of morals and belief.
30.The mandate of heaven determines the fate of a person and gives the ruler a right to rule.
31. The Himalayas and Hindu Kush Mt. The Indus and Ganges River Valley also separated China and India.
32. Persian War include Cyrus the Great against the Athenians. Peloponnesian War against Athens and Sparta. They both suffered from plague.
33, The Dark Ages of Greece people did not trade food. They began to leave Greece. People did not value their old traditions and writings.
34. Pericles was the famous Athenian political leader.
35. Democracy (Citizens get to vote into office their leaders and military tactics such as blockades.
36. The Parthenon built by Pericles for the Goddess Athena.
37. Hellinistic period was when Alexander the Great took control of the Greek lands. Most of the cities were names after him. The greatest one was Alexandria.
38. Athenian men were well educated. Athenian women were isolated from the public and had no say so in government. Spartan men lived barbaric lifestyles so that they would become great warriors. Spartan women controlled the household and could take part in government.
39. Athenian lifestyle was more conservative and organized which contained grand libraries and buildings. Spartan’s lifestyle was very harsh and barbaric like behavior for boys and girls.
40. Aqueducts are man made structure that carries water over a long distance.
41. The Romans got their gods from the Etruscans.
42. 3 reasons why the Roman empire fell:
(1) Civil war broke out against the patricians and plebeians. (2) Consuls no longer respected each other veto power. (3) The assassination of Caesar.
43. The Roman emperor of Herod supported Christianity.
44. Good Roman emperors: Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Augustus
Bad emperors: Nero, Caligula, Commodus
45. Julius Casear was a Roman emperor. Casear did not want to give up his power. He was a dictator and he ruled more than 6 months.
46. The person that introduced Christianity to the Roman was Jesus.
47. Roman Republic consists of citizens who have the right to vote, senate, 2 consuls as chief executives, praetor served as judges.
48. Ancient Ethiopia was taught Christianity by King Ezana.
49. Ezana was the king of Aksum.
50. Aztecs were polytheistic and believed in gods and goddesses, such as the sun god and included human sacrifices. Polytheistic – Greece, Rome, Egypt, India, China.
51. Irrigation ditches impact the Incas growing of crops by increasing farm production and by the use of terraces.
52. The Mayans civilization declined because they abandoned their cities possibly due to diseases, lack of food, or war.